Polaroid References


“How to disassemble a SX-70 Camera,”  www.chemie1.unibas.ch/~holder/sx70tech.html


Walworth, V. K., “Color Photography, Instant,” in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, edn. 3, vol. 6, pp. 646-682.


Land, E. H., “A New One-Step Photographic Process,” Journal of the Optical Society of America 37 (1947):  61-77.


Land, E. H., “One-Step Photography,” The Photographic Journal  90A (Jan 1950):  7-15.


Land, E. H., “Absolute one-step photography,” Photographic Science and Engineering 16 (1972):  247-252.


Lapidus, G., “Behind the Lens of the SX-70,” IEEE Spectrum  (December 1973):



Land, E. H., “Absolute One-Step Photography,” The Photographic Journal 114 (1974):  338-345.


Plummer, W. T., “Focus screen optimization,” Applied Optics 14 (1975):  2762-2765.


Plummer, W. T., “Photographic shutters:  better pictures with a reconsideration of shutter efficiency,” Applied Optics 16 (1977):  1914-1917.


Fleckenstein, L., “Image Transfer Processes,” in T. H. James, The Theory of the Photographic Process, edn. 4.  New York:  Macmillan, 1977, pp. 366-372.


Land, E. H., H. Rogers, and V. Walworth, “One-Step Photography”, in, J. M. Sturge,     ed., Neblette’s Handbook of Photography and Reprography, edn. 7.  New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1977, pp. 258–330.


Bloom, S. M., M. Green, M. Idelson, and M. S. Simon, “The Dye Developer in the Polaroid Color Photographic Process,” in K. Venkataraman, ed., The Chemistry of Synthetic Dyes, volume VIII.  New York:  Academic Press, 1978, pp. 331-384ff.


Olshaker, M., The Instant Image .  New York:  Stein and Day, 1978.


McNaught, N., “The SX-70 system of instant photography,” Optics and Laser Technology 11 (1979):  161-167.


Plummer, W. T., “Unusual optics of the Polaroid SX-70 camera,” Applied Optics 21 (1982):  196-202.


Van de Sande, C. C., “Dye Diffusion Systems in Color Photography,” Angewandte Chemie International English Edition 22 (1983):  191-209.


Zobel, D. J., Judgment in “Polaroid Corporation v. Eastman Kodak Company, No. 76-1634-Z, United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts (11 Oct 1985).  [Liability phase of trial]


Freeman, M., Instant Film Photography.  Salem, New Hampshire:  Salem House, 1985.


Wensberg, P. C., Land’s Polaroid:  A Company and the Man Who Invented It.  Boston:  Houghton Mifflin, 1987.


Walworth, V, and S. Mervis, “Instant Photography and Related Reprographic Process,” in J. Sturge, V. Walworth, and A. Shepp, eds., Imaging Processes and Materials, Neblette’s Eighth Edition .  New York:  Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989, pp. 181-225.


Perry, T. S., “The battle for the SX-70,” IEEE Spectrum 26 (May 1989):  45-49.  Suppliers for the electronics.


Lambert, R., “A Technical Description of Polaroid Spectra Film,” Journal of Imaging Technology 15 (1989):  108-113.


Mazzone, A. D., Judgment in “Polaroid Corporation v. Eastman Kodak Company, No. 76-1634-MA, United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts (12 Oct 1990).  [Damages phase of trial]


McCune, Jr., W. J., and B. Cassell, “Simplifying Camera Technology:  Polaroid’s Pioneering Efforts,” Journal of Imaging Technology  17 (1991):  62-66.


Mahajan, V., S. Sharma, and R. B. Buzzell, “Assessing the Impact of Competitive Entry on Market Expansion and Incumbent Sales,” Journal of Marketing 57 (July 1993):  39-52.


Campbell, F. W., “Dr. Edwin H. Land,” in Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 40 (1994):  195-219.


Plummer, W. T., “The SX-70 Camera:  The Optics,” Optics and Photonics News (October 1994):  44-48.


Wareham, R. R., “Dr. Land’s SX-70 Camera, A Brief,” Optics and Photonics News (October 1994):  46-47.


McElheny, V., Insisting on the Impossible, The Life of Edwin Land.  Cambridge, Massachusetts:  Perseus, 1998.


Plummer, W. T., J. G. Baker, and J. van Tassell, “Photographic optical systems with nonrotational aspheric surfaces,” Applied Optics 38 (1999):  3572-3592.


Dubin, J. A., “The Demand for Cameras by Consumers—A Model of Purchase, Type Choice, and  Brand Choice,” in, Studies in Consumer Demand—Econometric Methods Applied to Market Data .  Boston:  Kluwer, 1999, chapter 7, pp. 197-237.






 “Novel Photographic Products and Processes,” USPat 3,415,644 (Land, Dec 10, 1968)


 “Color Photographic Product Formed by Diffusion Transfer,” USPat: 3,578,540 (Land, May 11, 1971)


 “Compact Four Element Objective Lens,” USPat 3,619,036 (Baker,   )


 “Reflex Camera,” USPat 3,672,281 (Land, June 27, 1972)


“Compact Folding Reflex Camera,” USPat 3,678,831 (Baker, July 25, 1972)


 “Reflective Imaging Apparatus,” USPat 3,690,240 (Gold, Sept 12, 1972)


 “Compact Four  Element Objective Lens,” USPat 3,695,750 (Baker, Oct 3, 1972)


“Self-Developing Camera System,” USPat: 3,810,211 (Wareham, Paglia, May 7, 1974)


“Reflex Camera Viewfinder with Image Correcting Means,” USPat 3,860,940 (Baker, Jan 14, 1975)


 “Adapter for Coupling a Camera To An Optical Instrument,”  USPat:  4,279,487 (Baker, Fitch, Vance, Jy 21, 1981)